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Tips To Reduce Springtime Allergies

Are you or your little ones suffering with itchy, watery eyes and excessive sneezing? As much as we love the warmer weather we don’t really love the symptoms that come with springtime allergies. Seasonal allergies include both hay fever and allergic rhinitis, where the main culprit for these allergies is usually pollen. Not all plants pollinate in spring however, there are some that do in autumn and therefore you may also experience allergies during that time of year as well.

In this post I will go into a little more detail on what causes the allergic reaction and share some tips to try keep the symptoms at bay or at least make them a little more bearable.

WHAT CAUSES AN ALLERGY?

According to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, an allergy happens “when the immune system overreacts to a harmless substance known as an allergen”.

There are many different allergens out there but common ones include pollen, mold, pet dander, dust mites, bees and certain foods. Exposure to these allergens causes more production of IgE antibodies in some people. These antibodies then stimulate the release of chemicals, which are responsible for the symptoms of an allergy.

ANTIHISTAMINES AND ALLERGIES

Histamine is one of the main chemicals involved in the allergy process and the antihistamines, we commonly buy over-the-counter, help reduce the undesirable effects caused by this chemical. There are many different antihistamines on the market, some of which have undesirable side effects themselves.

Antihistamines are divided into 3 classes called generations. First generation antihistamines are the original ones, which are very effective but usually very sedating. Ever heard of Benadryl? This drug is not available in South Africa but it belongs to this class and is commonly given to children on long haul flights in order to make them drowsy. Shocking right?! Actually, some of these sedating antihistamines can in fact cause hyperactivity in children.

The second generation of antihistamines is equally as effective as the first but they are non-sedating. However, recent studies have shown that this class of antihistamines can cause heart arrhythmias. The newest class is the third generation, which are mostly metabolites of the second-generation antihistamines. These have been found to be both non-sedating and non-cardiotoxic.

Many of the antihistamines are not licensed for use in children less than two years of age and should not be given unless recommended by your healthcare provider.

Common antihistamines available in South Africa include:

First generation Allergex, Phenergan
Second generation Allecet, Allergex non-drowsy, Clarinese, Clarityne, Texa allergy
Third generation Adco-desloratidine, Deselex, Fexo, Telfast, Xyzal

SOME HELPFUL TIPS TO REDUCE ALLERGY SYMPTOMS

Antihistamines may seem like the obvious choice to help reduce the symptoms of allergies but there are a few other things you can do.

1. Put on your cleaning gloves

It’s not called spring cleaning for nothing. Giving your house a good spring clean is highly recommended because it helps get rid of indoor allergens such as dust mites, mold and pet dander that have collected during the winter. This should also be done in autumn.

Vacuum your home often and regularly wash linen, upholstery and all stuffed toys. If you have pets you also need to wash their beds and blankets regularly and it’s probably not a good idea to allow them into the bedrooms.

2. Keep pollen out of your home

During spring it’s always a good idea to keep the windows and doors closed in your home and also in the car, to prevent pollen from being blown inside. It’s advisable to use an air conditioner instead. Stay indoors on dry windy days and avoid outdoor activities early in the day when pollen levels are the highest.

Change your clothes when you enter your house and what’s even better, have a shower. This will help get rid of any pollen you may have brought into the house. You should definitely shower/rinse every day and also rinse your hair so the pollen doesn’t end up in your bed and on your pillow.

Be careful where you hang your laundry. Pollen can also stick to sheets, towels and clothes and then be brought into the home.

3. Keep pollen out of your nose

Keep a saline nose spray on hand and use it regularly throughout the day to gently wash away any pollen stuck to the little hairs inside the nose.

If you do need to resort to antihistamines it’s better to take them in the evening so that by the time morning arrives they are working well, because pollen concentrations are the highest at that time of the day.

Take extra precautions when the pollen counts are high. There are some apps and online resources you can consult to check levels in your city. I like, the Real Pollen Count (https://pollencount.co.za), which gives you a weekly report of what you can expect in major cities around South Africa.

If the symptoms are absolutely unmanageable it’s better to talk to an allergist to find out what exact allergen is causing the allergy.

RESOURCES

https://ep.bmj.com/content/100/3/122

https://link.springer.com/article/10.2165%2F00002018-200124020-00003

https://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/conditions-dictionary/allergic-reaction

 

 

 

How To Use a Car Seat Harness Correctly

It’s Child Passenger Safety Awareness Week and I have decided to talk a little about the car seat harness. The car seat harness holds a child down in the car seat so they cannot slide up, forward and out the car seat in the event of a crash.

There are two different types of harnesses; the 5-point and 3-point harness. What this really means is that the harness comes into contact with your child in 5 or 3 points. The 5-point harness has straps over both shouldres, both hips and one between the legs whereas the 3-point harness only has straps over the shoulders and one between the legs. Not only is a 5-point harness more secure but it also allows the forces from an accident to be distributed more evenly across the body.

Using the harness incorrectly is one of the most common mistakes parents make. In this short post I have outlined 3 really simple steps to take to correctly position your child in a car seat. Please remember to always check the manufacturer’s instructions first before using your car seat.

  1. Place your child all the way back in the car seat

Your child must sit snugly in the car seat with the bum and back firmly against the backrest.

  1. Correctly position the shoulder straps

Rear-facing car seats: the shoulder straps should be at or just below shoulder level (+- 2.5 cm)

Forward-facing car seats: the shoulder straps should be at or just above the shoulder level (+- 2.5 cm)

Image: Diono.com

  1. Tighten harness straps snugly

The straps should be tight enough so there is no excess webbing (check this using the pinch test).

Image: Diono.com

The harness should also not be too tight that it pinches your child’s skin or forces them into an unnatural position.

HARNESS RETAINER CLIPS

Image: safekids.org

Car seats made in Europe, Australia and South Africa do not come with harness retainer clips. You will most likely only see these clips if you are in the United States or Canada. These clips are not for added safety and are not designed to keep your child in their car seat in the event of a crash. In fact they are more likely to open up from the impact and slide down the straps. These clips are positioning devices and used to keep the shoulder straps in position pre-crash.

South Africa adheres to European car seat safety standards so you will not find car seats in this country with retainer clips. European regulation requires all car seat harnesses to be released in one motion and therefore a chest clip is simply not allowed. European car seats use other methods to keep the harness in place.

There are many other gadgets and devices available to use together with your harness to provide added comfort or extra protection. These are generally not safe since most of them are not crash tested and therefore can cause serious harm in the event of a motor vehicle accident.

RESOURCES

https://cpsboard.org/cps/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Technician-Guide_March2014_Module-8.pdf

https://csftl.org/chest-clip-myths-busted/

 

 

Common First Aid Myths

 

I am often surprised by how some of my patients manage their injuries before they come to the emergency room. I think my own mother is also guilty of practising some really strange methods whilst I was growing up. Over the years, medical advice and management has evolved. What may have made sense years ago is now out of date and has been replaced with more sound research and often logic. Here are just a few of the first aid practices and myths that I have seen over the years.

1. BUTTER ON A BURN

The idea behind this myth is not entirely wrong. Butter can help alleviate the initial pain caused by a burn because of its direct cooling effect. This however does not last long because butter, or any greasy substance for that matter, will actually slow down the release of heat from the skin. This means that the trapped heat can continue to burn the skin. Rather run the affected area under cool running tap water for up to 20 minutes immediately after the burn.

2. LEAN YOUR HEAD BACK DURING A NOSEBLEED

This one I see all the time and it is very wrong. If you lean your head back during a nosebleed you will inevitably swallow blood. This blood can irritate the stomach and cause nausea and vomiting. It can also even cause you to choke. Rather pinch the nose closed and lean your head forward.

3. PUT SOMETHING IN SOMEONE’S MOUTH WHEN THEY ARE HAVING A SEIZURE

This is often done to try and prevent someone from biting his or her tongue during a seizure. Tongue biting does happen often, but it very rarely causes any airway obstruction. You are more likely to cause an airway obstruction from whatever you have put in the mouth.

Seizures can look really scary but it’s better to move that person to a flat surface and clear the area around them so that they cannot injure themselves, while waiting for the seizure to end.

4. RUBBING ALCOHOL FOR A FEVER

 Many parents try reduce their little one’s fevers by rubbing alcohol directly on the skin or adding it to a sponge bath. As alcohol evaporates it can significantly cool the skin and potentially help reduce a fever. The problem with this is that rubbing alcohol (isopropyl alcohol) is also quickly absorbed into the skin and the fumes inhaled, which can lead to alcohol poisoning.

5. STAY AWAKE AFTER A BUMP TO THE HEAD

Parents often ask me if their little one is allowed to sleep after taking a knock to the head. It is no longer recommended to keep someone awake after a head injury. The concern was always that if someone with a concussion went to sleep they would not wake up.

If there are no red flags then it is perfectly acceptable to allow your child to sleep. Sleep is actually really important for the brain to heal. You can read more about head injuries here https://www.oneaid.co.za/a-bump-to-the-head-when-should-you-worry/

6. LIFT YOUR ARMS ABOVE YOUR HEAD WHEN YOU ARE COUGHING OR CHOKING

Someone who has a partial airway obstruction will still be able to cough. You should do nothing else but encourage coughing. When I was a child, my mother used to make me lift my arms up above my head. This can actually be dangerous because when you lift your arms, this movement causes the neck to move as well. The object causing the irritation may then slip further down into the airway and cause a complete obstruction.

7. MAKE SOMEONE VOMIT IF THEY HAVE SWALLOWED A POTENTIAL POISON

Do not make your child or anyone vomit by giving Ipecac syrup or even sticking your finger in their throats. This can be very harmful, especially if the poison swallowed is burning or corrosive.

The substance may get breathed into the lungs when vomited up and cause serious damage. The substance may also cause more damage to the lining of the oesophagus when vomited. The best thing to do is to call an ambulance or head straight to your nearest emergency room.

8. IF SOMEONE FEELS FAINT, MAKE THEM SIT WITH THEIR HEAD BETWEEN THEIR KNEES

If you do this and the person bent over does faint, they can fall out of the chair and get injured. Fainting is usually caused by decreased blood to the brain. If you are seated and put your head between your legs you will only slightly increase blood flow to the brain. It is far better to make that person lie down flat on their back and raise their legs. If the person has already fainted you should also lay them on their back and raise their legs.

9. APPLY HEAT TO A SPRAIN, STRAIN OR FRACTURE

Cold is commonly used for acute injuries and heat for more chronic conditions. Heat causes blood vessels to dilate, which increases blood flow, swelling and ultimately pain and cold has the opposite effect. After a sprain, strain or fracture it is better to apply ice to help with the swelling and pain.

Heat is very good for muscle spasms and other inflammatory conditions such as arthritis. Heat reduces muscle tension and causes muscles to relax. The increase in blood flow caused by the heat also helps remove pain-causing inflammatory cells and bring in healing cells.

10. PUT RAW STEAK ON A BLACK EYE

We can probably thank the Looney Tunes for this one! The only benefit you will get from this myth is the effects of the cold. Meat is often full of bacteria so whilst a big piece of raw steak will help with the swelling, it may cause an eye infection in the process. It is much better to apply an ice pack or even a frozen bag of peas.

There are many other myths. Do you have any others you would like to share with me? Can you remember any first aid tips or tricks that your Mother and even your Grandmother used to practice?

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