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Essential Fire Safety Equipment You Need In Your Home

How many of you have smoke detectors installed in your homes? Do you also own a fire extinguisher and if so is it the correct one? In this blog post I want to go into a little more detail on these products and why they are so important to have in your home.

SMOKE AND CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTORS

A smoke detector alarm detects the presence of smoke and possible fire in your home whereas a carbon monoxide (CO) detector alarm alerts you when the levels of CO in your home are dangerously high. Smoke detectors are a must for all homes. You only need a carbon monoxide detector if you use fuel-burning appliances such as gas stovetops, heaters and geysers. CO detectors are also important if your home has a fireplace.

These detectors need to be installed where you can hear them, especially while you are sleeping. It would be pretty pointless to put one in the garage if your bedroom is on the top floor. It is recommended that you have a smoke and carbon monoxide detector either inside or just outside of every bedroom. You also need to make sure there is one on each floor of your house.

Carbon monoxide detectors should also be installed near fuel-burning appliances, just outside the garage and in rooms with wood burning fireplaces. Carbon monoxide is a silent killer. You cannot see or smell the gas and in the early stages CO poisoning will feel more like the flu. You can read more about carbon monoxide and how it affects the body in my previous blog post: https://www.oneaid.co.za/gas-or-wood-how-to-safely-keep-warm-this-winter/

Most of these alarms run on batteries so they need to be tested regularly, at least every month. The batteries should also be replaced once a year.

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

There are at least four different types of fires that can happen in your home and water is definitely not the safest way to extinguish all of them.

Common causes of house fires:

1.     Class A

These fires involve combustible materials such as wood, textiles, straw, paper etc. These are materials that can combust, i.e. burn in air.

2.     Class B

These fires are caused by the burning of liquids or materials that liquify, such as petrol, paint, alcohol and paraffin.

3. Class F

These fires involve cooking oils and fats in the kitchen.

4.   Electrical appliances (formerly type E)

These are fires caused by electrical appliances

What fire extinguisher do you need?

There are five main types of fire extinguishers; water, foam, dry powder, CO2  and wet chemical. The different types of extinguishers are used to put out different classes of fires. There is not one extinguisher type that works on all classes of fire.

  1. Water fire extinguisher

These extinguishers are used to put out class A fires. The water has a cooling effect, which causes the fire to burn more slowly until all the flames have been extinguished. These extinguishers should not be used on or near electrical appliances.

These are not recommended for class F fires. If you had to use this extinguisher on such a fire in your kitchen, there would be an explosion of steam much larger than the one you see when rinsing a hot pan under water. This explosion would throw hot oils all over your kitchen, which could cause a new fire and most definitely result in thermal burns to your skin and eyes.

2.Foam fire extinguisher

Foam extinguishers are useful against both class A and B fires. Similar to water extinguishers, foam extinguishers have a cooling effect. These should also not be used on or near electrical appliances.

3. Dry powder fire extinguisher

These extinguishers can be used on class A, B, C and electrical fires. They work by forming a barrier on top of the fire so that the burning fuel has no more access to the oxygen it needs to burn.

These extinguishers should not be used in enclosed spaces as the powder that is dispersed can be inhaled. Therefore they are not recommended for home use.

4. CO2 fire extinguisher

CO2 extinguishers are used on class B and electrical fires because CO2 does not conduct electricity. These extinguishers work similar to the dry powder ones whereby they suffocate the fire by removing the oxygen from its surface.

5. Wet chemical extinguisher

These are the extinguishers you would use on a class F fire. They can also be used on class A fires. They work by creating a layer of cooling foam on top of the burning oil or fat and therefore also cut off the oxygen supply.

Before going out to buy a fire extinguisher you need to identify the different fire risks you have in your home, because this will determine which type of extinguishers you need and where you need to keep them. It is probably best to have an expert come and inspect your home and assess your individual needs. They can also guide you on where to install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors.

If you do have a fire extinguisher in your home make sure you know how it works. Read the manual or have someone show you, because in an emergency you really don’t want to be figuring out how the safety pins work.

RESOURCES

https://www.cityfire.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/fire-extinguisher-types.pdf

https://www.cpsc.gov/s3fs-public/SmokeAlarmWhyWhereandWhichCPSCPub559RevisedJuly2016PostReview.pdf

Gas or Wood? How To Safely Keep Warm This Winter.

We are now well into winter and definitely feeling the chill! South African homes are not well equipped to withstand the cold and we have to resort to various heating appliances to stay warm during winter. This is why structural fires and carbon monoxide poisoning are so common during the winter months. Below, I outline some safety tips on keeping warm in the home.

WHEN USING A GAS HEATER

  1. Always make sure the gas heater and especially the cylinder is completely turned off before going to bed or leaving the house.

  2. Always keep the room well ventilated to avoid carbon monoxide (CO) build up.

  3. Do not use outdoor gas heaters indoors, as they may produce more CO.

  4. Make sure all components of the heater are well maintained. Ensure the gas bottle is safely secured with no leaks.

  5. Natural gas is odourless. In order to identify leaks more easily manufacturers add chemicals to give it that distinctive rotten eggs smell.  If you smell gas in your home turn off the gas cylinder and do not use an electric fan to try and remove the gas.

  6. When switching your gas heater on always start by first turning on a match or lighter and then opening the gas supply. When switching the heater off always turn the gas cylinder off first.

  7. Never move a gas heater whilst in use.

  8. Do not place anything on or over the heater, such as damp laundry items. This can result in a fire. Do not ever sit on a gas heater either as it could fall over.

  9. Do not use flammable liquids and/or aerosols near a gas heater. Do not use a gas heater in a room that has recently been painted.

  10. Make sure to keep all flammable items a safe one-metre away.

  11. Have smoke and CO detectors installed and test them regularly.

  12. Always keep a fire extinguisher in your home.

WHEN USING A FIREPLACE 

  1. Keep a window slightly open.  This will help prevent the room filling up with smelly smoke. It also prevents the build up of carbon monoxide (CO).

  2. Make sure the damper of your chimney is open so that the smoke can leave the house. Only close the damper once the fire is completely extinguished.

  3. Use dry wood and not wet or green wood. Wet and green wood cause more smoke.

  4. Clean out any ash from the previous fire. Thick layers of ash restrict the air supply to the fire and cause more smoke. 

  5. Use smaller pieces of wood because these create less smoke.

  6. Remember to have your chimney cleaned once a year before the winter season. Animal nests and excess soot can block the escape of smoke.

  7. Never leave a fire in the fireplace unattended. Always make sure it is completely extinguished before going to bed and/or leaving the house.

  8. Make sure the area around the fireplace is clear of potentially flammable items such as books, curtains and furniture. Keep a safe one-metre distance.

  9. Keep fireplace tools and accessories such as firelighters, matches and lighters out of a child’s reach.

  10. Use safety screens so your children can’t get burnt by hot flying embers or by touching the hot glass of a closed fireplace.

  11. Have smoke and CO detectors installed in your house and test them regularly.

  12. Always keep a fire extinguisher in your home!

CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING

It may seem counter-productive to keep a window open when you are trying to keep your home warm, but this is extremely important if you are burning a fuel, such as gas, paraffin, coal or wood to generate heat.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless and odourless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of these carbon-containing fuels. When there is too much CO in the air your body replaces the oxygen attached to red blood cells in the blood, with carbon monoxide. This is because the affinity between haemaglobin (Hb) (in the red blood cells) and carbon monoxide is much stronger than the affinity between Hb and oxygen. This can be extremely dangerous and lead to hypoxia, irreversible brain damage and eventually death.

Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include:

  • Tiredness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Weakness
  • Confusion
  • Loss of consciousness

If carbon monoxide poisoning is suspected you need to move the victim into fresh air, either by opening all the doors and windows or getting the person outside. This will allow some oxygen to start displacing the carbon monoxide. Definitive management is however in hospital with high flow 100% oxygen so you need to call an ambulance right away.

ELECTRIC HEATERS

Some of you may have electric heaters in your homes. These are safer than using gas and fire but still not 100% safe. Electric heaters use a lot of electricity so they can easily overload circuits and cause power failures or fires.

You should never plug in more than one electrical device into the same outlet as the heater to prevent overheating and overloading. To prevent electric shocks electric heaters should not be used in rooms where moisture builds up such as bathrooms and kitchens. There is also a fire risk if flammable items such as fabric come into contact with electric heaters that have hot elements and the electric bar heaters pose an additional burn risk.

Whatever heating methods you use this winter none of them are guaranteed safe, so remember to take the necessary precautions. It is important that you teach your children about fire safety from a young age. If your little ones do get thermal burns from poking fires and other heating elements follow the principles of first aid.

To find out more about management of thermal burns you can read my previous post: https://www.oneaid.co.za/baking-with-your-little-ones-safety-and-tips-to-taking-care-of-thermal-burns/. It is also recommended that you develop a fire escape plan and make sure your children know how to safely get out of the house in the event of a fire.

RESOURCES

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/gas-heating-health-and-safety-issues

https://www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/all-around/Pages/Fire-Safety.aspx

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/carbon-monoxide-poisoning/ https://riseandshine.childrensnational.org/how-to-protect-children-around-fireplaces/

Is It A Cold Or Is It The Flu?

Winter is here and so are coughs, colds and flu. Common colds and flu are both caused by viruses and share many of the same symptoms however colds are usually milder and do not cause any serious complications. More than 200 viruses can cause a cold whereas the flu is caused by the Influenza virus. This is why there is no vaccine available for the common cold.

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE?

Generally colds affect you from the neck up where the flu attacks your entire body. A cold causes a runny or blocked nose and sneezing. There may be a sore throat with a slight headache because of nasal congestion. A cough can develop but this is mostly because of a post-nasal drip. Cold symptoms usually last for about a week. If the symptoms do not improve after a week it is less likely to be a cold and an allergy or sinusitis should be considered.

The flu on the other hand causes more distressing symptoms. These include fever, chills, body aches, cough, weakness and extreme tiredness in addition to all the symptoms of a cold. Most flu symotoms also improve after a week but it is common to still feel a little weak and tired for up to two weeks.

Pneumonia is a complication of the flu, especially in the young, elderly and those with pre-existing chronic diseases. If your child seems to be getting worse, has difficulty breathing, is extremely lethargic or irritable, is refusing to take in enough fluids and/or has a persistently high fever you need to seek medical assistance.

HOW TO REDUCE THE RISK OF CATCHING A COLD OR THE FLU

  1. Vaccinate: make sure everyone in your family gets the seasonal flu vaccine every year. It takes about two weeks for antibodies to develop and offer protection. It is recommended you receive the flu vaccine before the flu season starts but it’s never too late. In South Africa the flu season usually starts around the first week of June but in previous years it has started as early as April.

  2. Hand washing: Make sure you wash your hands frequently and teach your children about good hand washing. Wash with warm soapy water for at least 20 seconds. Cold and flu viruses enter the body through the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth and eyes. This means that every time you touch these parts of your body with hands that have the virus you have a high risk of infecting yourself.

  3. Cover up:  teach your children to sneeze or cough into a tissue or their elbow and NOT into their hands.

TREATING A COLD OR THE FLU

Antibiotics do not work against viruses. Therefore they will not work for a cold or the flu unless a bacterial complication has developed. Often I see that antibiotics are prescribed for viral infections to “treat” the parents rather than the children. This is dangerous and will only lead to the emergence of more antibiotic resistance, which is already a major global problem. Some parents will argue and say that their child started recovering after a few days on antibiotics but this is probably because the viral infection has run its course and is coming to an end instead.  

There are plenty of over the counter (OTC) medicines available for cold and flu symptoms targeting both adults and children. However, these are not recommended for use in children under two years of age. Some experts even suggest avoiding them up to six years. There is very little evidence to prove that these medications work at all and some of them can cause serious side effects in younger children such as hallucinations, irritability, restlessness and abnormal heart rhythms. More importantly codeine, which is an ingredient commonly found in cough, cold and flu medications should not be given to children younger than 18 years of age.

There are some antiviral medicines available for the flu. These are typically prescribed to children at high risk of complications, such as children with asthma. These drugs work best if taken within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms and help by reducing the length and severity of the infection.

Unfortunately, there is no cure for the common cold and flu. It will usually clear up on its own and all you need to do is treat it symptomatically:

Analgesics and antipyretics: you can give your child paracetamol or ibuprofen, NEVER aspirin. To find out more about medicines for pain and fever in children you can read my previous blog: https://www.oneaid.co.za/medications-for-pain-fever-in-children/

Fluids: make sure to give your child lots of fluids to prevent dehydration especially if they have a fever and/or are refusing to eat.

Rest, rest and more rest: allow your child to rest. The body needs rest to recover so keep your child home from school and forget about extra murals for a while.

Nose sprays: the most important nose spray you should use is a saline spray. These help thin the mucus and reduce nasal congestion. There are also other decongestant nose sprays that can be used in older children.

Warm steam and humidifiers: sitting in a steamy bathroom or using a humidifier, which adds moisture to the room, can help loosen mucus in the nose and relieve coughing.

TOP 5 COLD AND FLU MYTHS

  1. Milk and other dairy products make a cold worse
    There is no evidence that dairy products increase mucus production.

  2. “Feed a cold, starve a fever”
    If your child have a fever they need more fluids. Fevers cause dehydration and this happens more rapidly in young children. Provide plenty of fluids when your child is sick and if he or she has an appetite, allow them to eat.

  3. The flu vaccine will give you the flu
    The flu vaccine is made from an inactivated virus so you cannot get the infection. People who do get sick after receiving the vaccine got the infection from another source and were going to get sick anyways. Also, some people develop flu-like symptoms after a vaccine. This is a normal immune response to a vaccine. These symptoms never last as long as the flu would.

  4. You can catch a cold or the flu by going outside in cold weather without a jacket, having wet hair in winter or walking barefoot
    Germs make you sick and not the cold. People make this natural association because the cold and flu season happens during winter. The reason for this is that in colder weather people tend to congregate closer together to keep warm and doors and windows stay closed. This allows viruses to spread more easily.

  5. Chicken soup will make you better
    There are no antiviral properties in chicken soup but it can definitely make one feel better. The warm liquid can soothe a sore throat and keep you hydrated and the steam can help break down nasal congestion and reduce stuffiness.

It’s quite common for children under two to have as many as 8-10 colds a year with prescholars getting around 7-8.  It takes years to develop an immunity to viruses and since there are more than 200 viruses that can cause a cold the high rate of infection in our little ones makes sense. Don’t despair, the cold and flu season does eventually end but for now it’s a great reason to give more healing cuddles and keep our little ones loved up and warm this winter.

RESOURCES

https://www.cdc.gov/flu/symptoms/coldflu.htm

https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/when-give-kids-medicine-coughs-and-colds

https://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/10-flu-myths

http://www.nicd.ac.za/influenza-season-approaching/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2722603/

When Your Child Eats A Silica Gel Sachet

I’m sure many of you are familiar with those little sachets you find in almost anything these days.  The ones with the massive “DO NOT EAT” all over them. I have seen my fair share of hysterical parents bring their kids into the ER with a history of having swallowed the contents. But are these sachets really that dangerous?

These little sachets contain silica gel, which is silicon dioxide (Si02). The sachet does not actually contain a gel but rather small beads. Silica is a desiccant, which means it absorbs water. It has millions of small pores that hold moisture and can absorb up to 40% of its weight, which is why you find it in products that would otherwise spoil from excess moisture.

IS SILICA TOXIC?

Silica gel is chemically inert and considered to be non-toxic. Silica gel packets contain less than 5g of silica gel. If this tiny amount is ingested, it basically passes through the digestive tract without being absorbed or digested.

While this means that the contents of these sachets are harmless, it would be quite unpleasant if these are handled or swallowed. The mouth, gums and tongue would become parched, and if the contents were swallowed and not spat out, this would result in a few self-limiting side effects. Most notably, dry throat, eyes and mucous membranes in the nose, together with stomach discomfort and depending on the amount swallowed, nausea, vomiting and constipation. If the sachet was opened and the contents handled, it can also dry out and irritate the skin.

FIRST AID FIRST

If you think your child has played with silica gel, practice the principles of first aid. Anywhere the silica has come in contact, will be irritated. Wash whatever parts of the skin have been in contact with the silica and moisturise afterwards. If the eye has been touched, then rinse with running water for up to 15 minutes. If the contents were swallowed the best thing you can do is offer continuous sips of water to relieve the stomach distress. Do not give anything to induce vomiting! You don’t want the silica to be inhaled, because it can cause a very irritating cough and shortness of breath. The symptoms of silica ingestion are self-limiting, meaning that eventually, they will go away on their own.

IF SILICA IS NON-TOXIC WHAT IS THE BIG DEAL?

The biggest concern with these sachets is choking. These tiny beads are a choking hazard for small children. Unfortunately, additives, such as moisture indicators, are also sometimes added to the silica which can then make it toxic.

WHAT ARE MOISTURE INDICATORS?

Some silica gel sachets have moisture indicators. These indicator sachets are available in different colours depending on the type of indicator used. You may also find some sachets which contain a mixture of both indicator and non-indicator beads. The blue “indicator” silica gel is the more common one you may find. The blue comes from either cobalt dioxide, methyl violet or some other toxic substance that gets added to the silica. These substances change colour when wet and therefore are a good indicator of a saturated silica gel sachet. Cobalt dioxide, in particular, is a known carcinogen and also affects fertility. The FDA is busy banning this additive altogether, and thankfully, these indicator sachets are not commonly found in consumer products. If your child does, however, come into contact with one of these, you should seek immediate medical assistance.

Always remember to discard these sachets immediately after opening your products. Given the uncertainty of the composition of some of these silica sachets, practice the principles of first aid and keep an eye out for any unusual signs and symptoms whenever your child comes into contact with silica. If there is any concern, head straight to your nearest emergency room and don’t forget to take the sachet with you so that the contents can be tested.

RESOURCES

https://www.productip.com/uploads/CClip_519_SilicaGel_20130827_v1.pdf

https://www.illinoispoisoncenter.org/my-child-ate-Silica-Gel

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3493316/

Should Your Child Be Using Fluoride Toothpaste?

Untreated tooth decay in children is one of the most common conditions worldwide, which is why many toothpaste manufacturers have a wide range of toothpaste aimed at children, available in a variety of sweet flavours with cartoon characters all over the packaging. I wanted to write this post to give parents a little more information about toothpaste because it’s not really about the cute packaging and the taste test (agreed this does help make brushing teeth a lot easier).

Many parents, unfortunately, do not know the proper guidelines when choosing and using toothpaste in children. Majority of mothers start brushing their children’s teeth late, use adult toothpaste and have no idea about the clinical significance of fluoride. Most moms also use a full length of toothpaste on their children’s brushes.

HOW MUCH FLUORIDE IS ENOUGH?

Your body takes in fluoride by swallowing it in food and water. Fluoride occurs naturally in varying amounts in water sources and to a lesser degree in certain foods and drinks. Some countries also fluoridate their public water supply. Another way to take in fluoride is by topical application (in fluoridated toothpastes and mouthwashes). The fluoride taken in from foods and drink also provides some topical benefits when it becomes mixed with saliva.

We all know that brushing your teeth is vital in preventing tooth decay. It helps remove plaque, and the fluoride in toothpaste makes tooth enamel stronger, and more resistant to cavities. But how do you know which toothpaste to buy for your little ones when the amount of fluoride between brands ranges from zero to as high as that of adult toothpaste?

Fluoride in toothpaste is expressed as parts per million of fluoride (ppmF). According to the UK Department of Health, children under three years of age need to use a toothpaste with 1,000 ppmF. Older kids and adults need to use 1,450 ppmF. Young children need less fluoride to reduce the risk of fluorosis.

WHAT IS FLUOROSIS?

Fluorosis is the change of appearance of permanent teeth where they develop white lines or streaks. This happens when the developing teeth under the gums in younger children are exposed to excess fluoride. Too much fluoride affects the mineralisation of the teeth, and children younger than six years are at highest risk. The severity of Fluorosis is dose-dependent.

Image Source: health2blog.com

Fluorosis is a cosmetic condition and not a disease. It does not increase or decrease the risk of cavities. While the majority of cases of Fluorosis are mild, it can still have a significant psychological effect on your child.

HOW MUCH TOOTHPASTE IS ENOUGH?

It can be challenging to get your child to spit out the toothpaste after brushing without swallowing, especially if the toothpaste tastes like candy. It is therefore essential to use a small amount of toothpaste until your child has learnt to spit after they brush since inevitably your child will end up swallowing about half of what’s on the brush.

To prevent too much fluoride from being swallowed, you have to be vigilant about the amount you put on the brush. It is recommended that children under three years of age use no more fluoride toothpaste than a smear or the size of a grain of rice. For children three to six you should use a pea-sized amount of fluoride toothpaste.

Teach your child from an early age to spit. They don’t need to rinse. It’s also a good idea to not let them eat or drink anything after they have brushed their teeth so that the fluoride can do its job overnight.

KEY POINTS

  • Start brushing your baby’s teeth as soon as you see them come through.
  • Brush your child’s teeth morning and night with an age-appropriate brush.
  • Use fluoride toothpaste with the right amount of fluoride recommended for your child’s age. It is no longer recommended that children start using fluoride toothpaste only after the age of two.
  • Use the correct amount of toothpaste for your child’s age.
  • Children under six years of age should never use a fluoride mouthwash.

Fluoride toothpaste is generally safe and recommended for babies and young children provided you use it correctly. The most important thing you need to worry about is the amount of fluoride in the toothpaste. The next time you go out shopping for toothpaste take a look at the ppmF. You will be quite surprised since many of the “children’s” toothpastes have exactly the same amount of fluoride as adult toothpaste. Therefore it really only boils down to cost and taste and whether or not your little is a fan of Barbie.

How To Make The Medicine Go Down

It’s stressful when your kids are sick and even more stressful when they refuse to take their medicines. Not to mention the icky stickiness that is almost impossible to wash off your skin. In this blog I will share with you some tips I have learnt over the years to help make the medicine go down.

1. Disguise the taste

Many over the counter liquid medications available for kids are flavoured. Look on the bottle to see which flavour you are buying. Some brands have different options for the same drug such as Panado’s strawberry and peppermint flavours. Some brands may have the same flavours but taste different. My daughter prefers the strawberry flavour of Calpol than that of Panado. If the medication needs to be made up by a pharmacist, ask them to flavour the medication if possible.

Unfortunately, some meds just taste awful and not all pharmacies stock flavourings. You’ll need to get creative here. You can mix the liquid with fresh fruit or vegetable juice and even honey (if your child is over one year). You can also try mixing meds with milk or yoghurt but the calcium may interfere with the effects of some medications, particularly with certain antibiotics. Acidic foods may also inactivate some antibiotics. It’s important to ask your pharmacist and read the patient information leaflet before you decide to try this method.

If you are hiding the medication in a food or drink, keep the volume small so that the entire dose can be taken. Don’t mix with a full bottle or cup of juice if your child will not finish this.

2. Equipment

I always use a syringe and squirt the medicine along the inside of the cheeks and not onto the tongue. This way you can bypass the taste buds a little. You can also use a medicine dropper the same way. Slide the syringe or dropper along the cheek towards the back of the mouth and squirt the medicine slowly. Do not aim for the throat as your child will gag and cough and if you aim too far in front of the mouth the medicine will simply be spat out.

Using a syringe also allows you to give correct dosages. In kids it’s vital you give the correct dosage of medication. You can wash and reuse the syringes but after a while you should replace them.

3. Keep it chilled

You can also numb the taste buds beforehand. Your child can suck on a block of ice if he or she is older or you could try an ice-lolly for a younger child. Some medications can also be stored in the fridge, which can make them taste better.

4. Wash it down

Whilst Mary Poppins recommended a spoonful of sugar, I’m not sure many of us moms will be too happy with the after effects of this sugar rush before bedtime.

Have a glass of water or your child’s favourite drink on standby to drink as soon as they swallow just so they can wash their taste buds.

5. Coat the taste buds

You can try giving your child a spoonful of something thick and sweet such as maple syrup or honey to coat the tongue before giving the medicine.

6. Try a tablet instead

Some liquid medicines are available as chewables. If your child is old enough you can try these. Whilst there are some tablets that can be crushed and mixed with food. Speak to your doctor or pharmacist before you do this.

You may also find dissolvable tablets. Dissolve the tablet in a small glass of water and add some fruit juice to hide the taste as these can be extremely bitter.

7. Give your child some control

You will find that your kids will be more willing to take their medicine if they are in control or at least think they are. Allow them to choose when to take their medicine, for example, before or after the bath. They can also choose what flavour medicine they would like when you are buying it for them.

IF IT WORKS, STICK TO IT

You might find that more than one trick is necessary. If you have found a technique that works, stick to it. A while back I tried using one of those fancy medicine syringes I got at my baby shower instead of a simple syringe (I had actually forgotten to replace the ones I had thrown out). These syringe type medicine feeders are quite big and I couldn’t get it far enough to the back of the mouth to bypass the taste buds. My daughter did not like this at all and I ended up wearing most of the medicine!

Do you have any other tricks or tips to get your kids to take medicine? Please share in the comments section below!

If your little one requires medicine on a regular basis, here is a medicine chart to help you organise the days and quantities: https://www.oneaid.co.za/resources/

Keeping Your Children Safe During Bath time

I’m sure many of you will agree that bath time is loads of fun for our kids. Whilst the bathroom is a fun place, it can also be a scary place with a number of dangerous hazards such as the drowning, burns and poisoning.

It’s important that you are always in the bathroom with your children before, during and after bath time. Drowning is a major cause of death in children under five years. According to the Consumer Products Safety Commision in the United States, 80% of the 87 children, under five years who drown at home each year, have drowned in the bathtub. Young children are top heavy and can slip suddenly and drown in very little water. Infants and toddlers also don’t have the upper body and core strength to lift themselves up if that slip under the water.

HOW TO RUN A BATH

  • Keep your child away from the bath until the water is the right temperature.
  • The safe temperature of bath water should be between 37oC and 38oC (36OC for a newborn). Children have thinner skin than adults so they can burn much more quickly. Even if the bath feels warm to you it may be hot to your little one. Your plumber can also set the thermostat of your geyser to a maximum of 50oC.
  • Always fill your bath with cold water first. Your child could put his hand or foot in the water before the bath is ready and get burnt. If you have a mixer tap, run hot and cold together but start with the cold and slowly increase the amount of hot.
  • Run cold water through the tap before your child gets into the bath to cool the tap and prevent them from getting burnt if they touch it.
  • If you have a mixer tap, point the lever on the cold setting when you are finished running the bath to ensure the hot water does not get accidentally turned on in the bath.
  • Do not overfill the bath. Fill the bath water to just over your little one’s knees.

HOW TO HAVE A S-A-F-E BATH

S: Supervision is key! Always supervise babies, toddlers and children less than six years in the bath and when you run the water. Never leave an older child to supervise.
A: Arrange everything you will need for bath time in advance for e.g. towel, soap, shampoo, nappy, clean clothes and any medications.
F: Feel the water with your elbow first. It should feel warm but not hot. You can also use a water thermometer. Remember to swirl the water around to ensure an even temperature with no hot pockets.
E: Empty the bath as soon as bath time is over.

SLIPS, TRIPS & FALLS

Slips, trips and falls in the bathtub and shower are a common cause of injury in young children and according to statistics more common than tub drownings.

Use a non-slip mat in the bath. If you are using a bath seat or ring, your child will still need to be supervised. A bath seat is not a safety device. These seats are actually associated with an increasing number of reported drownings. This is because the device gives parents a false sense of security and they are therefore more likely to leave their baby alone in the bath.

Infants should be bathed in the bathroom basin or a smaller infant bathtub. This way they can’t roll over or ever be completely covered by the water.

Wipe up any splashes before your kids get out the bath so that nobody, including you, can slip and hit their head. As your kids get older you should also teach them to remain seated in the bath and not to stand up and jump.

Be sure to keep a MiniKit in your bathroom for peace of mind. Each kit contains a range of thoughtfully selected first aid items geared towards common childhood injuries. You can purchase one here: https://www.oneaid.co.za/product/minikit/

WHEN CAN YOU STOP SUPERVISING YOUR CHILD IN THE BATH?

This is a difficult question to answer as children mature at different ages. Since most children who drown in bathtubs are under the age of five, the general consensus is children under the age of six should never be allowed to bath alone and even those over six should be closely monitored. Even if your child knows how to swim you should never be too far away.

OTHER BATHROOM HAZARDS

Toilet: luckily my daughter has never been interested in exploring the toilet bowl but I have had moms tell me how their child likes to play with the water in the toilet. Keep the toilet lids closed at all times and if your little one is particularly curious install a toilet-lid lock.

Appliances: make sure any electrical appliances in the bathroom are unplugged and out of reach when your child is having a bath. Regular plug sockets may actually not be fitted in bathrooms for safety reasons so rather keep extension cords out.

Medicines: many of us keep medication in the bathroom. Make sure they are all locked away, out of sight and out of reach.

Dangerous items: make sure you keep cosmetics, razor blades, nail scissors, cleaning products and other dangerous items away.

Don’t get distracted during bath time. Keep your phone on silent or rather keep it out of the bathroom and join in on the fun. You could also try having a shower with your child instead for some extra fun. My daughter loves this and the best part is that I manage to get cleaned up as well freeing up some time later in the evening for something else. Just make sure you get a slip-proof mat for the shower first.

RESOURCES

https://www.aappublications.org/news/2015/11/11/PPBath111115

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000154.htm

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19596735

https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/124/2/541.long

https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/100/4/e1.long?utm_source=TrendMD&utm_medium=TrendMD&utm_campaign=Pediatrics_TrendMD_0

How To Clean A Wound: The Controversy Of Antiseptics

What do you do when your little one scrapes their leg? Do you rush off to your medicine cupboard to grab your bottle of Dettol of Savlon? This may actually not be necessary. Whilst it’s important you clean a wound as soon as possible in order to reduce the risk of infection, what you clean it with has been an area of debate in the medical world for years. Research has shown that running tap water over a wounds is just as effictive in cleaning a wound. Antiseptics may actually damage the skin and slow down the healing process.

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AN ANTISEPTIC AND A DISINFECTANT?

A Biocide is the general term for a chemical agent that inactivates microorganisms and depending on their activity they can either inhibit the growth of, or kill microorganisms completely.

Both antiseptics and disinfectants inactivate microorganisms. These terms are often used interchangeably but there is a very big difference. Antiseptics are biocides that are used on living tissues and disinfectants are biocides used on inanimate objects or surfaces. So for example in your kitchen, you would use an antiseptic to wash your hands and a disinfectant to wash the countertops.

HOW SHOULD I CLEAN A WOUND?

Before you clean a wound you have to stop any bleeding. This is done by applying direct pressure. Of course the wound may still continue to bleed a little for a while and/or when you clean the wound it may start to bleed again. As long as the wound is not bleeding excessively you can proceed to clean it.

For most simple wounds I would simply recommend rinsing them under cool running water. In the ER and in theatre we always clean wounds with lots and lots of water. If you are out and about and don’t have running water, you can always use bottled water. If this weren’t available then I would rinse the wound with a diluted antiseptic such as cetrimide or povidine-iodine (if of course there are no known allergies). If you are going to use an antiseptic, use it only once to initially clean and never chronically. When you clean the wound again after a day or so use water. Don’t ever use rubbing alcohol or peroxide to clean an open wound.

You can gently rub off any foreign material using a piece of gauze soaked in water. Use tweezers to remove any debris that may still remain. Remember to disinfect the tweezers before use.

Once the wound is clean you can then apply a moist dressing. You can use petroleum jelly or what I love to use is a lanolin ointment such as a nipple cream. To find out more about moist healing you can read my previous blog: https://www.oneaid.co.za/picking-scabs-popping-blisters/

WHAT ABOUT ANTIBIOTIC CREAMS?

These include creams such as Supiroban, Fucidin and Neosporin. I do not recommend using an antibiotic cream for a simple wound. Most wounds heal very well on their own.

The problem with using these creams is the possibility of developing bacterial resistence. If the wound were to get infected later on and you have been applying an antibiotic cream since day one, this cream would not be very effective against the infection.

Technically you can develop resistence towards antiseptics but this is very unlikely since antiseptics have a broader spectrum of microorganisms they inactivate than antibiotic creams. If the wound was very contaminated and has a high chance of infection then I would rather apply a very thin layer of an antiseptic cream.

Newer research has found that the body’s surface actually supports wound healing on its own. We all have bacteria that live on our skins that cause us no harm. These bacteria help protect us from pathogens in the environment. Using creams and solutions that have antimicrobial activity will upset the balance of organisms on our skins and interfere with this defense system.

WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF AN INFECTED WOUND?

After you have cleaned the wound and applied a dressing it’s important to monitor the wound for any signs of infection over the next few days:

  • Swelling;
  • Redness;
  • Increasing pain;
  • Bad smell from the wound;
  • Warm skin around wound;
  • Wound is leaking pus; and/or
  • Body temperature > 38 degrees Celsius.

If you notice any of these above changes, go straight to the emergency room.

If you are anything like my mother you probably have very old big bottles of antiseptics lying around. One of my microbiology Professors at University once told us that microorganisms can grow on the surface of these antiseptic liquids after a while. Also the antiseptic components of these solutions deteriorate after some time so always check the expiry dates. Rather buy smaller bottles and don’t keep them too long after they have been opened.

RESOURCES

https://emj.bmj.com/content/19/6/556.1

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC88911/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1743919117305368

https://www.woundsresearch.com/article/1585

https://www.woundsresearch.com/article/1586

https://www.woundsresearch.com/article/sams-dodd

https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10355/3613/DoTopicalAntibioticsImproveWound.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/45149036_Benefit_and_harm_of_iodine_in_wound_care_A_systematic_review

Tips For Choosing The Right High Chair

Before going out and buying a high chair it’s important to know the safety requirements. A US study found that more than 9 400 children, aging three years and younger, were treated each year for high chair related injuries in emergency rooms from 2003 to 2010. That’s one child every hour!

Nearly all of these injuries were as a result of a fall where the child either climbed in or out of the chair or stood in it. Majority of the injuries seen were head injuries (37%) then bumps and bruises (33%) followed by lacerations (19%). Most of us use our high chairs in the dining room or kitchen where the flooring is usually hard, so you can imagine the impact this has on a small brain.

This has prompted the US to update their safety standards (unfortunately there are no available statistics for South Africa). From mid-2019 all high chairs in the US will have to have a passive crotch restraint and a three-point restraint system, which means there has to be a fixed post that sits between a child’s legs and restraints that are fixed to the high chair in three different places. They found that children were able to slip out the bottom of a high chair and hope a fixed post will prevent this.

High chairs are not recommended for children younger than 6 months of age. A child is only ready for a chair once they have good head and neck control and are able to sit up on their own. If one is used too early a child could experience positional asphyxia. You may however, be able to start a little sooner with a reclining high chair (see my previous blog, ‘How safe is your car seat?’). https://www.oneaid.co.za/how-safe-is-your-car-seat/

CHOOSING THE RIGHT HIGH CHAIR

Framework: choose a high chair that is sturdy. Put some weight on it and see if it squeaks, deforms or moves or collapses.

Gaps: make sure there are no gaps your child can slip out of. Also check for gaps that little fingers can get caught in.

Harness: choose a high chair with either a three-point or five-point harness that includes a crotch strap or a post. The restraint should go over the shoulders, around the waist and if a five-point harness then between the legs.  

Wide base: a high chair becomes top heavy when your child is in. Choosing a chair with a wide base will make it more stable so that it does not tip easily.

Wheels: if you choose a high chair with wheels, make sure they can be locked when the chair is in use.

Folding locks: if the high chair folds check that the locks work well enough so that the chair cannot fall or collapse when in use.

Joints: choose a high chair with metal joints. These are stronger than plastic, which can crack after time.

Safety standards: make sure the high chair meets current safety standards and has been approved by an international safety authority.

BOOSTER SEATS AND HOOK-ON SEATS

Please be careful when you use these chairs. If not used correctly these seats can be dangerous.

Hook-on seat: These chairs are mounted directly onto a table and should only be used once your baby has good head and neck control and can sit upright. The mounts must be slip resistant and because this seat carries the entire weight of your baby the table has to be strong so that it does not tip over.

Booster seat: These seats are attached to normals chair by straps to raise a child’s height. They are usually used when a child has outgrown the high chair but is not quite tall enough to sit at the table unaided. They should also have straps to keep your child in the seat.

KEEPING YOUR CHILD SAFE IN A HIGH CHAIR

  • Never leave your child unsupervised when they are in a high chair.
  • Always use the safety straps when your child sits in the chair, even if only for a few minutes. The tray is not a restraint.
  • If the chair folds, make sure it is locked each time you set the chair up.
  • If the chair has wheels, make sure they are locked each time you set the chair up.
  • Never allow your child to stand in the high chair.
  • Do not place the high chair near a counter or table. Your child may be able to push against the surface and cause the chair to tip over.
  • Don’t allow older children to climb or play on the high chair while another child is seated in it because it could tip over.
  • Position the high chair at its lowest possible height if this is adjustable.
  • Make sure potential hazards such as hot food, drink and sharp cutlery are out of reach.

When choosing a high chair opt for an age-appropriate one with plenty of safety features. It’s also important to check often for recalls once you have purchased your chair. High chairs are commonly recalled because of their safety issues. Recent recalls include the Skip Hop Tuo convertible high chair and the Graco Table2Table 6-in-1. You can check http://www.recalls.gov to see if your high chair has been recalled.

RESOURCES

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0009922813510599

http:// https://www.nationwidechildrens.org/newsroom/news-releases/2013/12/new-study-finds-24-children-a-day-are-treated-in-us-emergency-departments-for-high-chair-related

A Simple Guide To Bandages

With so many different types of bandages available its easy to get confused with what bandage to use when. Bandages are generally used to cover wounds, to apply pressure to bleeding wounds and to support and immobilise sprains, strains and broken bones.

I have put together a list of the most common types of bandages and when to use them. As you will see most of them have interchangeable uses so its really a matter of preference and of course, cost.

There are three major types of bandages – roller bandages, triangular bandages and tubular bandages.

ROLLER BANDAGE

These are long single strips of breathable material. Depending on the thickness and elasticity, these bandages are the most versatile.

The different roller bandages are described below:

1. Conforming bandage
This bandage has a high degree of stretch so that it can conform to any shape. This bandage comes in a light, medium and heavy weight

Use:

  • Can be used to hold a dressing in place
  • Can be used with a dressing to apply pressure to control bleeding wounds
  • A thicker weight can be used to compress and support a sprain or strain

2. Crepe bandage
This is a thicker weight than conforming bandage.

Use:

  • Can be used to hold a dressing in place
  • Can be used with a dressing to apply pressure to control bleeding wounds
  • Can be used to compress and support a sprain or strain
  • Can be used to compress a limb in the event of a poisonous snake bite

Both conforming and crepe bandages are never applied directly onto open wounds. A dressing must be in place first.

3. First aid dressing
This is a roller bandage that has a dressing pad sewn into it. The bandage is usually lightweight with some elasticity.

Use:

  • The pad is applied directly onto an open wound and then the bandage is rolled to keep it in place. There is no need to apply a separate dressing first.

4. Elastic adhesive bandage
This roller bandage has a very sticky adhesive, which can be taped directly onto the skin. This bandage is thick weight. However, this is not my favourite bandage as it can be very painful to remove if there is a lot of hair on the skin and some people may have an allergy to the adhesive.

Use:

  • Can be applied onto a joint to compress and support a sprain or strain
  • Can be applied over a conforming or crepe bandage for additional pressure to control bleeding wounds. Great for amputations and arterial bleeding.
  • Can be applied onto a conforming or crepe bandage to secure it in place
  • Can also be used to hold ice packs in place on the injured area

5. Cohesive bandage
This is a thin lightweight breathable bandage that sticks to itself, without actually being sticky. There is no risk of pulling out any hairs when removing this bandage.

Use:

  • Most commonly used to compress and support sprains and strains

TRIANGULAR BANDAGE

This is the most versatile bandage. It is usually a single sheet of thick cotton or calico in the shape of a large triangle. It can be applied to areas of the body where it may be more difficult to apply a roller bandage such as the scalp.

Use:

  • These bandages are most commonly used to construct slings for soft tissue injuries, broken bones or dislocations. Some triangular bandages come with safety pins to help you construct the sling but most of the time you will not need them;
  • Can be used to secure splints;
  • Can be used as a pad on top of a dressing to apply extra pressure for a bleeding wound;
  • Can be folded down to form a strip of bandage and wrapped around a wound to hold a dressing in place and/or apply extra pressure to control bleeding;
  • Can be used to elevate a limb to reduce blood flow to the area if bleeding a lot from an open wound;
  • Can be used to elevate a limb to reduce blood flow and limit swelling; and/or
  • Can be used as a tourniquet in an emergency when the use of a tourniquet may be warranted.

TUBULAR BANDAGE

These bandages are not normally found in first aid kits. They can be medium to heavy weight.

Use:

  • The thicker weight bandages are used for compression, support and to reduce swelling for joint sprains and strains;
  • Can be used to protect the skin under a cast for a broken bone;
  • Can technically be used to keep a dressing in place and apply pressure to bleeding wounds but care needs to be taken when applying it so that the dressing does not shift when the tube is pulled over the injured area.

WHAT IS A DRESSING?

A dressing is something that is applied directly onto a wound to cover it. A bandage can then be applied over a dressing to keep it in place if the dressing is not adhesive.

WHAT IS A PLASTER?

Depending which way you look at it, a plaster can either be an adhesive dressing or an adhesive bandage with an attached dressing. Plasters are more commonly known as adhesive dressings and Band-Aid is a brand of plasters.

Bandages are only helpful if used properly. It’s important to recognise the bandages you have in your first aid kit and to know which bandage you should use when and how to properly apply them.

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