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How To Make The Medicine Go Down

It’s stressful when your kids are sick and even more stressful when they refuse to take their medicines. Not to mention the icky stickiness that is almost impossible to wash off your skin. In this blog I will share with you some tips I have learnt over the years to help make the medicine go down.

1. Disguise the taste

Many over the counter liquid medications available for kids are flavoured. Look on the bottle to see which flavour you are buying. Some brands have different options for the same drug such as Panado’s strawberry and peppermint flavours. Some brands may have the same flavours but taste different. My daughter prefers the strawberry flavour of Calpol than that of Panado. If the medication needs to be made up by a pharmacist, ask them to flavour the medication if possible.

Unfortunately, some meds just taste awful and not all pharmacies stock flavourings. You’ll need to get creative here. You can mix the liquid with fresh fruit or vegetable juice and even honey (if your child is over one year). You can also try mixing meds with milk or yoghurt but the calcium may interfere with the effects of some medications, particularly with certain antibiotics. Acidic foods may also inactivate some antibiotics. It’s important to ask your pharmacist and read the patient information leaflet before you decide to try this method.

If you are hiding the medication in a food or drink, keep the volume small so that the entire dose can be taken. Don’t mix with a full bottle or cup of juice if your child will not finish this.

2. Equipment

I always use a syringe and squirt the medicine along the inside of the cheeks and not onto the tongue. This way you can bypass the taste buds a little. You can also use a medicine dropper the same way. Slide the syringe or dropper along the cheek towards the back of the mouth and squirt the medicine slowly. Do not aim for the throat as your child will gag and cough and if you aim too far in front of the mouth the medicine will simply be spat out.

Using a syringe also allows you to give correct dosages. In kids it’s vital you give the correct dosage of medication. You can wash and reuse the syringes but after a while you should replace them.

3. Keep it chilled

You can also numb the taste buds beforehand. Your child can suck on a block of ice if he or she is older or you could try an ice-lolly for a younger child. Some medications can also be stored in the fridge, which can make them taste better.

4. Wash it down

Whilst Mary Poppins recommended a spoonful of sugar, I’m not sure many of us moms will be too happy with the after effects of this sugar rush before bedtime.

Have a glass of water or your child’s favourite drink on standby to drink as soon as they swallow just so they can wash their taste buds.

5. Coat the taste buds

You can try giving your child a spoonful of something thick and sweet such as maple syrup or honey to coat the tongue before giving the medicine.

6. Try a tablet instead

Some liquid medicines are available as chewables. If your child is old enough you can try these. Whilst there are some tablets that can be crushed and mixed with food. Speak to your doctor or pharmacist before you do this.

You may also find dissolvable tablets. Dissolve the tablet in a small glass of water and add some fruit juice to hide the taste as these can be extremely bitter.

7. Give your child some control

You will find that your kids will be more willing to take their medicine if they are in control or at least think they are. Allow them to choose when to take their medicine, for example, before or after the bath. They can also choose what flavour medicine they would like when you are buying it for them.

IF IT WORKS, STICK TO IT

You might find that more than one trick is necessary. If you have found a technique that works, stick to it. A while back I tried using one of those fancy medicine syringes I got at my baby shower instead of a simple syringe (I had actually forgotten to replace the ones I had thrown out). These syringe type medicine feeders are quite big and I couldn’t get it far enough to the back of the mouth to bypass the taste buds. My daughter did not like this at all and I ended up wearing most of the medicine!

Do you have any other tricks or tips to get your kids to take medicine? Please share in the comments section below!

If your little one requires medicine on a regular basis, here is a medicine chart to help you organise the days and quantities: https://www.oneaid.co.za/resources/

Keeping Your Children Safe During Bath time

I’m sure many of you will agree that bath time is loads of fun for our kids. Whilst the bathroom is a fun place, it can also be a scary place with a number of dangerous hazards such as the drowning, burns and poisoning.

It’s important that you are always in the bathroom with your children before, during and after bath time. Drowning is a major cause of death in children under five years. According to the Consumer Products Safety Commision in the United States, 80% of the 87 children, under five years who drown at home each year, have drowned in the bathtub. Young children are top heavy and can slip suddenly and drown in very little water. Infants and toddlers also don’t have the upper body and core strength to lift themselves up if that slip under the water.

HOW TO RUN A BATH

  • Keep your child away from the bath until the water is the right temperature.
  • The safe temperature of bath water should be between 37oC and 38oC (36OC for a newborn). Children have thinner skin than adults so they can burn much more quickly. Even if the bath feels warm to you it may be hot to your little one. Your plumber can also set the thermostat of your geyser to a maximum of 50oC.
  • Always fill your bath with cold water first. Your child could put his hand or foot in the water before the bath is ready and get burnt. If you have a mixer tap, run hot and cold together but start with the cold and slowly increase the amount of hot.
  • Run cold water through the tap before your child gets into the bath to cool the tap and prevent them from getting burnt if they touch it.
  • If you have a mixer tap, point the lever on the cold setting when you are finished running the bath to ensure the hot water does not get accidentally turned on in the bath.
  • Do not overfill the bath. Fill the bath water to just over your little one’s knees.

HOW TO HAVE A S-A-F-E BATH

S: Supervision is key! Always supervise babies, toddlers and children less than six years in the bath and when you run the water. Never leave an older child to supervise.
A: Arrange everything you will need for bath time in advance for e.g. towel, soap, shampoo, nappy, clean clothes and any medications.
F: Feel the water with your elbow first. It should feel warm but not hot. You can also use a water thermometer. Remember to swirl the water around to ensure an even temperature with no hot pockets.
E: Empty the bath as soon as bath time is over.

SLIPS, TRIPS & FALLS

Slips, trips and falls in the bathtub and shower are a common cause of injury in young children and according to statistics more common than tub drownings.

Use a non-slip mat in the bath. If you are using a bath seat or ring, your child will still need to be supervised. A bath seat is not a safety device. These seats are actually associated with an increasing number of reported drownings. This is because the device gives parents a false sense of security and they are therefore more likely to leave their baby alone in the bath.

Infants should be bathed in the bathroom basin or a smaller infant bathtub. This way they can’t roll over or ever be completely covered by the water.

Wipe up any splashes before your kids get out the bath so that nobody, including you, can slip and hit their head. As your kids get older you should also teach them to remain seated in the bath and not to stand up and jump.

Be sure to keep a MiniKit in your bathroom for peace of mind. Each kit contains a range of thoughtfully selected first aid items geared towards common childhood injuries. You can purchase one here: https://www.oneaid.co.za/product/minikit/

WHEN CAN YOU STOP SUPERVISING YOUR CHILD IN THE BATH?

This is a difficult question to answer as children mature at different ages. Since most children who drown in bathtubs are under the age of five, the general consensus is children under the age of six should never be allowed to bath alone and even those over six should be closely monitored. Even if your child knows how to swim you should never be too far away.

OTHER BATHROOM HAZARDS

Toilet: luckily my daughter has never been interested in exploring the toilet bowl but I have had moms tell me how their child likes to play with the water in the toilet. Keep the toilet lids closed at all times and if your little one is particularly curious install a toilet-lid lock.

Appliances: make sure any electrical appliances in the bathroom are unplugged and out of reach when your child is having a bath. Regular plug sockets may actually not be fitted in bathrooms for safety reasons so rather keep extension cords out.

Medicines: many of us keep medication in the bathroom. Make sure they are all locked away, out of sight and out of reach.

Dangerous items: make sure you keep cosmetics, razor blades, nail scissors, cleaning products and other dangerous items away.

Don’t get distracted during bath time. Keep your phone on silent or rather keep it out of the bathroom and join in on the fun. You could also try having a shower with your child instead for some extra fun. My daughter loves this and the best part is that I manage to get cleaned up as well freeing up some time later in the evening for something else. Just make sure you get a slip-proof mat for the shower first.

RESOURCES

https://www.aappublications.org/news/2015/11/11/PPBath111115

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000154.htm

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19596735

https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/124/2/541.long

https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/100/4/e1.long?utm_source=TrendMD&utm_medium=TrendMD&utm_campaign=Pediatrics_TrendMD_0

Drowning 101: Understanding The Biology

Drowning is the third leading cause of unintentional injury-related death worldwide. In SA, the number of drownings has increased significantly over the years, with drowning mortality highest in children under 15 years of age. Shockingly, South Africa has been ranked among the top 10 in an analysis of 60 countries for child drowning mortality.

LET’S TALK DEFINITIONS

In 2005, the World Health Organisation simplified matters, so the terms near-drowning, wet, dry, active, passive, silent and secondary drowning are no longer medically recognised.

Drowning: the process of undergoing respiratory impairment as a result of submersion or immersion in liquid. The outcome can either be fatal or nonfatal.

Submersion: when the airway is BELOW the surface of the liquid.

Immersion: when the airway is ABOVE the surface of the liquid.

Aspirate: when you breathe something foreign into the lungs.

Hypoxia: when not enough oxygen reaches the tissues in the body.

THE BIOLOGY OF DROWNING

The water enters the mouth. Once the water travels down and touches the larynx it triggers a reflex, which causes a laryngospasm. This is when the larynx closes up tightly, therefore no water can enter the lungs.

Since the lungs are no longer getting air, the brain starts to lose oxygen which eventually causes this reflex to stop. The larynx then relaxes and water enters the lungs. If death occurred before water entered the lungs it was called dry drowning and when water entered it was wet drowning. Dry drownings are actually very rare.

Once water is in the lung the body absorbs it into the bloodstream. It is uncommon for the amount of water to exceed the rate of absorption because people who are conscious won’t actually breathe in that much water and when they become unconscious they are no longer actively breathing.

Surfactant

The lungs are made up of lots of little sacs called alveoli. These sacs are lined with a substance called surfactant. Surfactant keeps these sacs open so that air can enter them.

When water mixes with surfactant it no longer does its job and the alveoli collapse. With all these sacs collapsing the blood cells cannot absorb any oxygen. They then start to look elsewhere for oxygen and begin to flood areas of the lung where the alveoli are still open (this is known as shunting). Because of these high pressures, fluid starts to leak out of the blood and into the lungs. This then causes pulmonary oedema and is what used to be referred to as secondary drowning.

Eventually, because of the decreasing oxygen in the blood, you lose consciousness. Your brain will then continue to be without oxygen and the duration of this is the most important determinant of outcome.

DELAYED DROWNING

This is what many parents are afraid of will happen to their children. Delayed drowning happens when your child aspirates some water whilst swimming and develops symptoms much later after the incident. Usually you are not even aware of this and your child may not even tell you they had any problems in the water.

Physiologically speaking delayed drowning is the same as secondary drowning. The water that was breathed in causes enough alveoli to collapse to result in shunting and pulmonary oedema.

It’s important to know that there has never been a medically documented case where someone who had a drowning incident, experienced no symptoms at first but later deteriorated and died. Usually someone who has aspirated water will have some symptoms right after which will either get better or worse within a few hours. If your child has had any problems in the water you should watch them for the next 1-2 days. If any respiratory symptoms develop you should take them straight to the emergency room.

Signs and symptoms to watch out for:

  • Coughing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Chest pain
  • Unusually tired
  • Pale skin
  • Vomiting

Remember… NEVER leave your children unsupervised around water. A child can drown in as little as 2.5 cm of water.

RESOURCES

van Beeck, E.F. et al. (2005) A new definition of drowning: towards documentation and prevention of a global public health problem. Bulletin of World Health Organization, [online]. Available from: https://www.scielosp.org/pdf/bwho/2005.v83n11/853-856/en [Accessed: 11 October 2018].

Hawkins, S.C., Sempsrott, J. & Schmidt, A. (2017) Drowning in a Sea of Misinformation: Dry Drowning and Secondary Drowning. Emergency Medicine News [online]. Available from: https://journals.lww.com/em-news/blog/PhotographED/Pages/post.aspx?PostID=247 [Accessed: 11 October 2018].

High, P. (2016) Immersion submersion and drowning Available from: https://derangedphysiology.com/main/required-reading/trauma-burns-and-drowning/Chapter%204.0.7/immersion-submersion-and-drowning [Accessed: 11 October 2018].

Saunders, C.J., Sewduth, D. & Naidoo, N. (2018) Keeping our heads above water: A systematic review of fatal drowning in South Africa. SAMJ, [online] 108 (1), pp. 61-68. Available from: http://www.scielo.org.za/pdf/samj/v108n1/17.pdf [Accessed: 11 October 2018].

WHO (2018) Violence and Injury Prevention. [online]. Available from: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/other_injury/drowning/en/ [Accessed: 11 October 2018].

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